Genomics involves measuring everything about a genome and the changes between genomes. The genome consists of all the nucleic acid inside of a cell. This includes all the chromosomal DNA and, if an organism is a eukaryote, this includes chromosomes from both the mitochondria and the nucleus. Commonly used techniques in genomics are DNA sequencing, microarrays, and PCR.
Genomics is becoming increasingly used in medicine to help diagnose disease since an individual's DNA sequence can provide insights into the potential for developing specific diseases.
Genomics is one of many "-omics" disciplines that is becoming more prominent in biotechnology and research as a whole, alongside proteomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, exomics, and others. Novel discoveries in this field often track closely with innovations in the technologies available to conduct analysis and perform sequencing or assays. In each case, "-omics" approaches allow for study of biological systems from a holistic standpoint, and findings can motivate directed research on specific genes or pathways.